Every person has the inherent ability to perform certain activities. At school, some are primes in mathematics, another in history. The same situation is in sports, the thrower probably won’t beat a record in ski jumping. A big part of these predispositions is genetically determined, and their cognition allows for prioritisation in science or the selection of practised sport in such a way that it is matched to the needs and abilities of our body.
Developmental dyslexia is a disorder occurring in children who exhibit difficulties in mastering language skills, despite the use of generally accepted teaching methods, irrespective of the child's intellectual abilities. Currently, statistics indicate that the problem of dyslexia affects 10-15% of people in the world. Correct dyslexia diagnosis is not easy. Its symptoms are not very specific and can be confused with the naturally occurring difficulty of learning in children, which through appropriate actions can be overcome.
Depending on the age of the child, various psychomotor disorders that indicate the possibility of dyslexia appear or intensified. In pre-school age these are mainly difficulties in fastening buttons or lacing shoes, the inability to remember more than one command at the same time, the delay in speech development and speaking, as well as a quicker onset of fatigue. The causes of dyslexia may be different and most often in the child we can distinguish more than one factor causing this disorder, however one of the oldest views on the cause of dyslexia are genetic conditionality. Heritable changes lead to disturbances in the shaping of the part of the brain responsible for reading — neurons cannot move and connect appropriately.
Research suggests that two genes are involved in dyslexia development: KIAA0319 and DCDC2. The changes that arise in them are responsible for the symptoms of psychomotor disorder. The first of these encodes the formation of proteins, whose role in the human body is regulating the movement of nerve cells and the adhesion of cells in the process of developing the cerebral cortex. Changes in the KIAA0319 gene result in a change in the original properties of the protein and can cause developmental disturbances in the cerebral cortex, which directly translates into its functioning. The second gene is the DCDC2 gene, which encodes the formation of a protein that plays an important role in neuronal migration and affects the process of transmitting signals through nerve cells.
Specialist dyslexic assistance is based on a properly conducted psychopedagogical therapy, which is corrective-compensating. Its aim is to improve the impaired functions (correction) and to support these well-developing (compensation). The study is recommended to be performed on children at the earliest age so that their results can give indications for further investigation.
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